Tuesday, January 14, 2020

A Philosophy on English Education

Education is a philosophy within itself without even responding to the different categories of a student's learning day. English education is, in my opinion, kind of a shady subject. When one talks about their English class, what aspects are they talking about? Is this referring to the grammar sections, the vocabulary sections or the criticizing of novels? Through the use of grammar a person can increase the way others perceive what they are writing. In my opinion it is not the way something is written that is important, but the content of what is written. Vocabulary is another such device. It is said that a person can feel only what they can express. In other languages around the world, there are words that put more emphasis on the same word. For example the word love, in the English language means one thing. Wether it is toward a mother or toward a spouse it has one meaning. Now is the love you feel for a mother the same as for the love you feel for a spouse? No, and in other languages there is a difference between these two emotions. If a person cannot express the way they feel how can they feel this way? I feel vocabulary is an asset that needs to be cultivated in order for a person to evolve into an educated person of society. The other aspect of English education however is not as particular as the other two. The analysis of literature is in itself a whole philosophy as well. It is a way for a person to open their mind into different thoughts that would not have been open to them otherwise. The idea of group leaning is for different ideas and interpretations to be presented. I believe this is a main part of English education. I believe the purpose of education is to better a persons life through knowledge and assist them later in life. Education is a vital part of anyone's life. Without it a person could not get a job and make it in the real life. I believe however that teachers must keep in mind that one's education is up to the individual student. A teacher should support the student, as well as the student supporting the teacher. If a student feels that a specific assignment or subject is unneeded then it should be reviewed. If it is vital the teacher should simply explain why the assignment in necessary, and the student will then have the desire to do the task at hand. Education is a vital part of my life. I believe that I have the materials to go far in life but without the knowledge base that is given in a learning atmosphere such as school, this will not be possible. I would however like to be given the choice of what to learn instead of being forced to do certain activities. Young people today do not like to read. Why is this? I believe is it because all their lives books and school have been shoved down their throat by teachers and professors who do not care about the student's desires and opinions. My personal feelings on the English language are stated above. I feel that there are not enough words in the language and therefor people of different cultures have language differences as well as differences in the way they think. I believe many English teachers are forced to presaent the curriculem in a repetitious tedious manner. I believe that there is too much emphasis put on writing and grammar and not enough on oral presentation and giving students the skills they will need later on in life. The ability to stand in front of someone and present one's feelings or opinions is a necessary ability for one to have. If a student can explain in detail orally what they have learned without writing it in a formal paper, that should be just as sufficient. As I said before, I believe its not the way a person states something that is important, but what is being stated. Regardless of this short bashing of mine, I do not want you to feel this is my perception of you. This is my past experiences with English teachers and the way they presented themselves and the material to the class. In no way do I feel bias to your thoughts or ideas. I look forward to many interesting conversations and debates in your class. I realize that my desires are not realistic and formal papers must be written in order for a teacher to be able to evaluate each student in an organized and timely manner.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Child Labour Around the World - 3028 Words

Child Labor lingers among all Introduction Child labor has been an enormous issue lingering amongst our world today, but yet people d not realize that it is still occurring more often in developing countries. Throughout the last few decades, child labor has been declining in many countries. However, more than 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are still working (â€Å"Child labor around,† 2013). Some sort of child labor exists in each country due to weak economic structure and lack of regulations. These children are often forced to work under hazardous conditions, which can be identified as child labor (â€Å"Child labor around,† 2013). Many of these children’s childhood are taken away from them as well as an opportunity to gain an education. They lose the opportunity to understand what it is like to have a normal childhood. Children in poverty end up with no choice but to work under extremely hazardous conditions. Children are often viewed as cheap labor which leads to corpora tions taking advantage of child labor to look for an opportunity of increasing their profits. Corporations often have overseas subcontractors that use child labor as a method of maximizing profits (â€Å"Child labor around,† 2013). Child labor often occurs to the â€Å"poverty trap cycle†, which means children lacking an education lead towards the work path. The poverty trap cycle is classified as a cause and effect; the first step of eliminating child labor is elimination of poverty. The conceptShow MoreRelatedChild Labour And How Does It Happen?914 Words   |  4 PagesChild Labour The focus of this investigation is Child labour and recently developing child labour especially in developing countries. Child labour is when someone has power over children and they use it to their advantage such as businesses, especially when illegal or considered exploitative. It is predicted that child labour happens where there is more people. There are a lot of different types of child labour such as: Agriculture, Carpet weaving, automobile workshop, mining, stone/ marble cuttingRead MoreChild Labour Is An International Issue1587 Words   |  7 PagesIntro: Child labour is one of the many things that is happening today in our world. A child does many different types of work and activities in their daily life, within factories in different countries. According to the Fresh Quotes â€Å"You have the power to create a better future. Treat children well.† This quote shows how some people are against this issue. It makes people think how different children life are across the world. The reasons behind this are children being involved in child labor areRead MoreCape Town, South Africa Programs to End Exploitation and Abuse of Children709 Words   |  3 PagesExploitation of Children Anti-Child Labour Youth Development Counter Human Trafficking They are a children’s rights organisation that is trying to end of all forms of exploitation and abuse of children. Their work involves counter human trafficking, anti-child labour and the development of the youth in South Africa. All three programs are dedicated to stop all forms or situations which result in the enslavement of children Their Vision is to protected the rights of children and end exploitationRead MoreChild Labour Should Not Be Protected Against Cruel Acts Or Exploitation1205 Words   |  5 Pages mental or ethical growth. 2. * Child labour continues to be a concern in this day and age but because of the efforts of labour groups, governments, companies and ordinary people, the number of companies employing child labour is decreasing. As consumers, people should talk to business involved in the production of goods and ask them what measures they take to ensure that the goods they produce are child labour free. Companies caught to be using child labour should face serious penalties and shouldRead MoreWhy Should A Teenager Waste Their Time?1138 Words   |  5 Pagesthe world in a positive way when they have social media, iPhones and middle school drama. Now, imagine putting yourself in Craig Kielburger little thirteen year olds shoes. A teenager who learnt about one kid suffering from child labour decided to make a change, he decided to create a campaign that would bring awareness to child labour and put a stop to it. Craig Kielburger`s book, Free the Children is eye-opening, educating and incredibly in teresting; it brings awareness about child labour to theRead MoreChild Labour And Child Labor1381 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the world around 218 million children are exposed to child labour. It occurs in most countries such as underdeveloped places such as India, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mexico, Pakistan and many others. Many of these children do not go to school because their families cannot provide an income that would cover the fees for an education. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labour such as working in hazardous environments, slaver and Illicit activities including drug traffickingRead MoreEssay on Child Labour1321 Words   |  6 Pages Child Labour nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Child labour is one of the topic that presents strong emotions, beliefs and opinions. Most people are opposed to the involvement of children in labour force activities when they are at an age when other activities, such as education and play, should be the central role in development. However, child labour represents an extremely difficult and complex issue which often extends beyond emotions, beliefs and opinions. Much of this has to do with the understandingRead MoreChild Labour And Indi Causes, Challenges And Legislations1467 Words   |  6 PagesChild Labour in India: Causes, Challenges and Legislations to combat the malaise. Abstract: Child labour continues to be a problem even today in many parts of the world. These children are mostly inhabitants of poor undeveloped nations of South America, Africa and Asia. They live in harsh conditions with almost no access to education. The income earned by them, however minimal, is necessary to feed and clothe their families who are dependent on them. The families have no other option but to pushRead MoreChild Workforce is Dangerous Essay893 Words   |  4 PagesChild Workforce is a service where young children work instead of doing what children usually do when they are young. Child Workforce is when children work hard and work underground for a long period of time. Child Workforce is still happening today in China and other places. Children work for a certain amount of money an hour, 25 cents. Child Workforce is dangerous and prevents children from doing childish thing. Children need some kind of help when it comes to the Child Workforce. Child WorkforceRead Mor eChild Labour And Child Labor1142 Words   |  5 Pagesforced to endure child labour. Child labour affects children mentally and physically, as well as putting children at risk for abuse from employers. Child labour is an everyday task for as many as 280 million children. They work on farms, factories, and in sweatshops for extremely low fees; most have little or no education. Child labour addresses many issues and thoughts such as, dehumanization, the lack of enforcement of child labour laws which exist in most countries in the world and the social effects

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Short Story - 1040 Words

The flight to Des Moines wasnt very nice but luckily it was over. We walk into his childhood home. Nobody is here to greet us. We make our way into the den where they are all sitting. They all jump up to kiss and hug on Andy. I can tell they missed him. I look over to his sister and see her glaring at me. â€Å"Maybe she just comes off really aggressive when she isnt† I thought, but something inside told me that was not the case. His mother walks over to me with a blank face. â€Å"So this is your little friend† she says. That comment is a bit off putting but I know some people arent the best at first impressions. Things are so tense here. I don’t know how I’m gonna get through the week. We’ve been here for three days and nobody in the family†¦show more content†¦Andy said he needed to talk to me about something important tonight. I don’t know what he wants to talk about. He sounded very serious when he told me we needed to talk. Iâ €™m nervous. I don’t have a good feeling about this. â€Å"I talked to my parents the other day† he says. â€Å"How did it go?† I ask. â€Å"Well they are still very unhappy that I’m with you.† he says. I tune out. I wish he would just not let them comment on our relationship. It’s so unnecessary. I sit and wonder why they would even care this much. Let alone why they would care, but why does Andy listen to it? I suddenly snap back into focus. I can’t believe what I just heard. I stare blankly at Andy’s saddened face. â€Å"Heidi I’m not doing this to hurt you, I just things would be better off for the both of us if we werent together.† All I can hear is my heartbeat getting faster and faster. I can’t believe he is doing this. How could he leave me after all this time? â€Å"They told me that if I didn’t leave you I would be completely cut off from the family. I would stay with you but I donâ₠¬â„¢t think I’ll be able to make it without any family there to support me.† What he is saying breaks my heart but I see why he’s doing it. I know that he also wants me to find someone who will have a family that will welcome me and treat me well. I can’t feel my entire body. I just feel numb. I guess I’m in shock. I just told Andy to go back to his dorm or something but to just leave me alone. I love him so much IShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories â€Å"Miss Brill† and â€Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a wedding† written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words   |  7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words   |  7 PagesThe short stories â€Å"The Idol† by Adolfo Bioy Casares and â€Å"Axolotl† by Julio Cortà ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In â€Å"Axolotl†, the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words   |  6 Pages The End. In the short story, â€Å"Emma Barrett,† the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. The story follows through first person narration by a group member named Holden. This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee - 1297 Words

To Kill a Mockingbird In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee creates an amazing story, but there is one thing that is controversial in the book: Did Atticus do the right thing by taking on Tom’s case? In the book, Tom Robinson, who was a black man, was wrongly accused by Bob Ewell for raping Ewell’s daughter, and Atticus, a lawyer, decides to take on the case in a Maycomb, which was a very racist town. Bob Ewell, who is mad when Atticus makes a fool of him, goes after, and hurts, Atticus’s kids. So, the question is, did Atticus do the right thing by taking on the case, and by doing so, put his kids in danger? Most likely, the answer is yes, even though he put his kids in harm s way, he still did the right thing, since his kids only came out of the experience with mild injuries, but a lot of knowledge and experience about how to live in the racist town of Maycomb. So, Atticus did the right thing by taking on Tom Robinson’s case, because it was t he right thing to do, especially in Maycomb, because without Atticus, Tom wouldn’t have stood a chance. If Atticus did not take on the case, he would not have felt right, and his kids would not have looked up to him the same as they did before the case, because they are â€Å"colorblind†. â€Å"‘If you shouldn’t be defendin’ him, then why are you doin’ it?’ ‘For a number of reasons,’ said Atticus† (Lee 100). This quote shows that Atticus was a very noble man, and he did the right thing, even though he probably should not haveShow MoreRelatedKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1049 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: How a Story could be based on True Events in Everyday LifeDaisy GaskinsCoastal Pines Technical Collegeâ€Æ'Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama. Her father was a former newspaper editor and proprietor, who had served as a state senator and practiced as a lawyer in Monroeville. Also Finch was known as the maiden name of Lee’s mother. With that being said Harper Lee became a writer like her father, but she became a American writer, famous for her race relations novel â€Å"ToRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee1000 Words   |  4 Pagesworld-wide recognition to the many faces of prejudice is an accomplishment of its own. Author Harper Lee has had the honor to accomplish just that through her novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, a moving and inspirational story about a young girl learning the difference between the good and the bad of the world. In the small town of Monroeville, Alabama, Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. Growing up, Harper Lee had three siblings: two sisters and an older brother. She and her siblings grew up modestlyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee873 Words   |  4 PagesIn the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee illustrates that â€Å"it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird† throughout the novel by writing innocent characters that have been harmed by evil. Tom Robinson’s persecution is a symbol for the death of a mockingbird. The hunters shooting the bird would in this case be the Maycomb County folk. Lee sets the time in the story in the early 1950s, when the Great Depression was going on and there was poverty everywhere. The mindset of people back then was that blackRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1290 Words   |  6 PagesHarper Lee published To Kill a Mockingbird during a rough period in American history, also known as the Civil Rights Movement. This plot dives into the social issues faced by African-Americans in the south, like Tom Robinson. Lee felt that the unfair treatment towards blacks were persistent, not coming to an end any time in the foreseeable future. This dark movement drove her to publish this novel hopeful that it would encourage the society to realize that the harsh racism must stop. Lee effectivelyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee963 Word s   |  4 Pagesgrowing up, when older characters give advice to children or siblings.Growing up is used frequently in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Harper Lee uses the theme growing up in To Kill a Mockingbird to change characters opinion, develop characters through their world, and utilizes prejudice to reveal growing up. One major cause growing up is used in To Kill a Mockingbird is to represent a change of opinion. One part growing up was shown in is through the trial in part two of the novelRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1052 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee takes place in Maycomb County, Alabama in the late 30s early 40s , after the great depression when poverty and unemployment were widespread throughout the United States. Why is the preconception of racism, discrimination, and antagonism so highly related to some of the characters in this book? People often have a preconceived idea or are biased about one’s decision to live, dress, or talk. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee examines the preconceptionRead MoreHarper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird931 Words   |  4 PagesHarper Lee and her Works Harper Lee knew first hand about the life in the south in the 1930s. She was born in Monroeville, Alabama in 1926 (Castleman 2). Harper Lee was described by one of her friends as Queen of the Tomboys (Castleman 3). Scout Finch, the main character of Lees Novel, To Kill a Mockinbird, was also a tomboy. Many aspects of To Kill a Mockingbird are autobiographical (Castleman 3). Harper Lees parents were Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Finch Lee. She was the youngestRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1695 Words   |  7 PagesIn To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee presents as a ‘tired old town’ where the inhabitants have ‘nowhere to go’ it is set in the 1930s when prejudices and racism were at a peak. Lee uses Maycomb town to highlight prejudices, racism, poverty and social inequality. In chapter 2 Lee presents the town of Maycomb to be poverty stricken, emphasised through the characterisation of Walter Cunningham. When it is discovered he has no lunch on the first day of school, Scout tries to explain the situation to MissRead MoreKill A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee1197 Words   |  5 Pagessuch as crops, houses, and land, and money was awfully limited. These conflicts construct Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mocking Bird. In To Kill a Mocking Bird, Lee establishes the concurrence of good and evil, meaning whether people are naturally good or naturally evil. Lee uses symbolism, characterization, and plot to portray the instinctive of good and evil. To Kill a Mocking Bird, a novel by Harper Lee takes place during the 1930s in the Southern United States. The protagonist, Scout Finch,Read MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1876 Words   |  8 PagesThough Harper Lee only published two novels, her accomplishments are abundant. Throughout her career Lee claimed: the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Goodreads Choice Awards Best Fiction, and Quill Award for Audio Book. Lee was also inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters. This honor society is a huge accomplishment and is considered the highest recognition for artistic talent and accomplishment in the United States. Along with these accomplishments, her

Friday, December 13, 2019

Cell Biology Final Review Free Essays

string(190) " change that promotes formation of a functional dimeric receptor, bringing together two poorly active kinases that then phosphorylate each other on a tyrosine residue in the activation lip\." Chapter 15 Signal Transduction 1) Endocrine, paracrine , autocrine signaling, and cell-cell contact (Fig. 15-2). Endocrine signaling is long distance signaling. We will write a custom essay sample on Cell Biology Final Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now An example would be pancreatic cells secreting insulin. Paracrine signaling is for close proximity. An example would be a nerve cell releasing neurotransmitters. In autocrine signaling the cell that produces the ligand also contains the receptor for that ligand. This is how cancer cells work. In signaling by plasma membrane attached proteins, the target cell does something in response to direct contact from the signaling cell. ) List examples of 1) steroid hormones and 2) amino acid derivatives that act as ligands. What are the catecholamines, and which amino acid are they derived from? Steroid hormones bind cytosolic receptors. They include cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, thyroxine and retinoic acid. Steroid receptor complexes increase or decrease the transcription rates of certain genes. Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and histamine are ligands that are derived from amino acids. Catecholamines are ligands derived from the amino acid tyrosine. 3) W hat’s an agonist? What’s an antagonist? A doctor prescribes isoproterenol to his patient – why? Why not epinephrine? Another patient receives alprenolol – why? (See page 629 and Fig. 15-5). Agonist= structural analog, antagonist=inhibitor. Isoproterenol has lower Kd (higher affinity) than epinephrine, and will inc. smooth heart muscle contraction. Alprenol is an antagonist (â€Å"beta blocker†) and slows heart contractions 4) What are the five kinds of second messengers we described in lecture. (Fig. 15-9 shows only four): cAMP, cGMP, DAG, IP3 and Ca2+ 5) What are GTP-binding (switch) proteins? When are they on? When are they off? (Fig 15-8). GEFs help turn them on. GAPs help turn them off. Are â€Å"on† when bind GTP, and â€Å"off† when bind GDP. Ex: Ras, Ran, trimeric G proteins 6) What are kinases versus phosphatases? Kinases phosphorylate, Phosphatases dephosphorylate 7) What are the main features of a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, Figs. 15-10, 15-12, and 15-13)? What is epinephrine and what kinds of receptors does it bind on what cells to induce what responses? GPCRs= â€Å"seven-pass† receptors with amino terminus outside cell and carboxy terminus inside cell. Epinephrine released when glucose needed quickly (inc. glycogenolysis and lipolysis); binds to GPCR receptor , which activates a G protein (switch protein), which activates an effector protein (adenylyl cyclase) producing cAMP NOTE: cAMP does not involve RTK (tyrosine), but uses Ser/Thr kinases! PDE degrades cAMP 8) Describe the three G proteins ? , ? , and ?. Which one binds GTP/GDP (hint for question 6 above). G? —binds GDP, is tethered to inner leaflet of plasma membrane, but dissociates from ? and ? to activate effector protein (adenylyl cyclase). G? and G? never separated! Are tethered to inner leaflet and work as a unit. 9) Describe FRET (Fig. 15-14). 10) What is adenylyl cyclase? Figs 15-21 and 15-22. What does it do? How is adenylyl cyclase positively and negatively controlled? Positive: epinephrine binds ? adrenergic receptors to activate Gs, actvating adenylyl cyclase; Negative: PGE binds to ? adrenergic receptors to activate Gi which then inhibits adenylyl cyclase. 11) The complete â€Å"Fight or Flight† road map. YIKES!! What happens when cAMP rises? What happens when cAMP drops? 12) T/F: Second messengers are long-lived in their signaling effectiveness? How is cAMP degraded? PDE 13) What is cAMP-dependent protein kinase and how does it work? (Figs. 15-23 and 16-31) Do not involve tyrosine kinases (RTK), but use Ser/Thr kinases (binding of cAMP releases catalytic sites†¦) 14) What do we mean by amplification in signal transduction? Fig. 15-26. So many steps involved in signal transduction b/c you’re amplifying signal at every step fast response 15) PIP2, DAG, IP3, and the release of Calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. (Fig. 15-30). Each PI kinase phosphorylates inositol ring: PI PIP PIP2, and cleavage of PIP2 by Phospholipase C yields DAG and IP3. Phospholipase C is activated by a hormone binding to GPCRs and activation of G proteins. IP3 releases Ca2+ back into cytosol to transduce a signal (Ca2+ binds to PKC which binds to DAG phosphorylates substrates). Ca2+ pumps normally pump Ca2+ (from cytosol) into ER or out to exterior; yet IP3 causes ion channels to open and release Ca2+ into cytosol. Once Ca2+ released, it positively feeds back on channels to allow more Ca2+ to flow out. But once Ca2+ becomes depleted from ER and at high conc. in cytosol, it inhibits channels. ALSO: once Ca2+ rises in cytosol, acts as a 2nd messenger to trigger insulin release 6) Calmodulin. Activated by binding of 4 Ca2+ molecules, it then activates: PDE (to degrade cAMP), glycogen phosphorylase kinase GPK (to break down glucose, activates this path without cAMP! ), other protein kinases, and Nitric Oxide (NO) synthase (involved in acetylcholine relaxation of smooth muscle in conjunction with cGMP) 17) How are blood vessels dilated by acetylcholine (Fig. 15-31)? BTW, what does Viagra do? Acetylcholine binds acetylcholine GPCR, which activates phospholipase C, which makes IP3, which binds to Ca2+ (leading it to inc. n cytosol), and Ca2+ binds calmodulin, which activates NO synthase that produces NO. The NO is then released by paracrine signaling into muscle cells and binds NO receptor that converts GTP to cGMP, which activates protein kinase G relaxation of muscle cell and through endocrine signaling causes blood vessel dilation. VIAGRA blocks degradation of cGMP by PDE (may cause blindness b/c rod cells kept open by cGMP) 18) Beta arrestin in receptor desensitization. If receptor constantly exposed to epinephrine, may itself become phosphorylated by PKAblocking transducing signal, downregulating ALL GPCRs. Once ? -adrenergic receptor is phosphorylated by BARK (? -adrenergic receptor kinase) ? -arrestin binds the receptor to block its activation of Gs, as well as promotes formation of *clathrin-coated vesicles for endocytosis of the bound receptor (to deplete surface receptors) CHAPTER 16: Signal Transduction and Gene Expression 1) List several ligands that bind to Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs). * Nerve growth factor (NGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and more List several kinds of general responses that could occur. What characteristics are different between RTKs and GPCRs (i. e. their protein structure and function)? * RTK= receptor tyrosine kinases; havee components: extracellular ligand-binding site, a single hydrophobic trans-membrane ? helix, and a cytosolic catalytic domain. Ligand binding causes a conformational change that promotes formation of a functional dimeric receptor, bringing together two poorly active kinases that then phosphorylate each other on a tyrosine residue in the activation lip. You read "Cell Biology Final Review" in category "Papers" Phosphorylation causes the lip to move out of the catalytic site, thus allowing ATP or a protein substrate to bind. The activated kinase then phosphorylates other tyrosine residues in the receptor’s cytosolic domain. The resulting phophotyrosines function as docking sites for various signal-transduction proteins. * GPCR= G-protein coupled receptors. Binding of ligand triggers the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G? subunit and dissociation of G? †¢GTP from the G complex, and G? subunit transduces the signal, but in yeast pheromone receptors it’s the G complex. G unctions by triggering a kinase cascade (similar to the one for Ras). Its proteins are involved in mating-specific cellular responses. 2) What are adaptor proteins? Specifically what are SH2, SH3, and PTB domains and how do they work. (Figs. 16-19, 16-20) No intrinsic enzyme activity; have docking sites for other effector proteins, such as SH2, SH3, or PTB domain (Phospho-Tyrosine Binding). These docking prot eins pass the signal onto Ras. 3) Growth FactorRTKGRB2SOSRasRafMEKMAPdifferential gene expression for cell division or specific cell type differentiation. What happens at each step? (Figs. 16-21, 16-22, 16-25, 16-27). Why so many steps (see question 16 in the previous section)? Sev gene regulates R7 development and in mutants R7 is missing cell differentiates into a cone instead and flies now sensitive to UV light. The Sev gene product is RTK and Boss (in R8 cells) is the ligand for this RTK. Once Boss binds/activates Sev RTK it causes GRB2 (with SH subunits) to bind receptor, leading to relocation of SOS (the GEF for Ras) from the cytosol to the membrane where Ras-GDP resides and it activates it†¦ ) Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 tri-phosphate and Protein Kinase B (Fig. 16-29 and 16-30). PI-3,4,5-triphosphate ( made by phosphorylation of PIP2 at #3 OH by PI-3 Kinase) is docking site for Protein Kinase B. PKB bound to PI 3,4,5-triphosphate and PDK1 (also bound to PI 3,4,5triphosphate) diffuse into membrane and PDK1 phosphorylates/activates PKB Ras-independent insulin signaling 5) Insulin versus glucagon. (Slide from lecture shows a Ta ble comparing and contrasting the two ligands and their effects on serum glucose. ) Insulin: synthesized in ? ells and when there’s high blood glucose activate GLUT4 (glucose transporter) and inc activity of glycogen synthase removal of glucose from blood and its storage as glycogen. Glucagon: reacts to a decrease in blood glucose, stimulating release of glucagon, activating adenylyl cyclase, activating glycogen phosphorylase and inhibiting glycogen synthase degradation of glycogen and release of glucose into blood. Chapter 20: The Cell Cycle 1) Who were the three Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine for 2001? * Leland Hartwell * Tim Hunt * Paul Nurse ) Review the gross morphological events of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. * Prophase * Chromosomes condense to the 30nm solenoid fiber * Chromatids remain attached at the centromeres and the spindle forms * The nuclear envelope disassembles in most eukaryotic cells (called â€Å"open† mitosis). Ye asts and other fungi have a â€Å"closed† mitosis * ER and Golgi turn into vesicles * Metaphase – Condensed chromosomes align in a straight line that is referred to as the metaphase â€Å"plate† * Anaphase * Sister chromatids separate from each other The spindle is critical for chromatid movement to opposite poles * Molecular motors generate force and movement * Telophase * Beginning of the next interphase * Chromosomes begin to decondense * The nuclear envelop and the nucleolus begin to reassemble * Cytokinesis * Cytoplasm divides * Golgi and ER reform from vesicle fusion 3) Figure 20-2 is a good summary. 4) Three major classes of Cdk/cyclin complexes: Where they work in the cell cycle, and what do they do. What are the three critical steps in the cell cycle? * G1 cyclin-CDKs Expressed when growth factors (EGF, PDGF, NGF, etc) signal the cells to divide * Phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein in mammalian cells * S-phase cyclin-CDKs * Form during G1, but ar e held silent by an inhibitor * The inhibitor is destroyed by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Then, the cell progresses into S-phase * Mitotic cyclin-CDKs * Also called MPF (maturation/mitosis promoting factor) * Form in S-phase and G2, but are held silent until late G2 * Once activated, mitotic Cdk-complexes initiate mitosis * Chromosome condensation Nuclear envelope disassembles and the spindle forms * Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate * ER and Golgi turn into vesicles * Partially activates anaphase promoting complex (APC) 5) Classic experiments: * What happens when you fuse a G1 cell to a M-phase cell? Fig. 20-3 * Interphase cells advance prematuring into M-phase * Now we know that the diffusible regulators are the mitotic Cdk-complexes (MPF) * What happens when you fuse a G1 cell to a S-phase cell? * G1 nuclei begin to replicate their DNA prematurely Used [3H]-thymidine incorporation and autoradiography to visualize DNA synthesis * Now know that diffusible S-phase Cdk-com plexes activated the pre-replication complexes on DNA origins of replication in the G1 nuclei * What happens when you fuse a G2 cell to a S-phase cell? * Re-replication of G2 DNA does not occur * Once DNA is replicated, it cannot be re-replicated in that same cycle * What’s the diffusible regulator in the first experiment? MPF 6) What two species of yeast were used to decipher the genetics of the cell ycle? What’s a closed mitosis versus and open mitosis? * Budding and fission yeast * In open mitosis, the nuclear envelope disassembles during mitosis. In closed mitosis, the nuclear envelop does not disassemble. 7) What is â€Å"cloning by complementation†? (Fig. 20-4). This is the same as functional complementation. * Many cdc mutations identified are temperature sensitive * Grow and divide at permissive temperatures * Fail to divide at non-permissive temperatures * We can select cDNAs by functional complementation ) What is MPF (what two proteins make up MPF) an d where did its name come from (i. e. what organism and cell type)? (Figs. 20-5 and 20-6) * MPF is the maturation promoting factor. It is comprised of Cdk1-Cyclin B * The name came from studying frog oocyte maturation in vitro 9) The pathway to MPF destruction: What is Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC)? What activates APC? What does APC then do and how does it do it? Fig. 20-10 * MPF is a kinase that phosphorylates many different substrates to initiate mitotic events * To exit mitosis, MPF must be destroyed Destruction of MPF depends on the destruction of Cyclin B * Destruction of Cyclin B is via the ubiquitin pathway * Ubiquitin is covalently linked to lysines behind the destruction box * Cyclin B without the destruction box will not be destroyed * APC destroys MPF, but APC was actually activated earlier at anaphase by MPF 10) You have to know Fig. 20-13 and 20-14!! 11) Molecular events at the onset of mitosis: a) Nuclear envelope disassembly: what are the lamin proteins, how do the y disassemble, and where do they go when they disassemble? (Figs. 0-16, 20-17) * The nuclear lamina supports the nuclear envelope. It is found on the underside of the inner envelope membrane. * The nuclear lamina is made of three lamin proteins: A, B and C * All three lamin protein form coiled-coil dimers * Two dimers form a tetramer with head-to-head or tail-to-tail orientations * MPF phosphorylation of Ser residues causes disassembly * A and C diffuse into the cytoplasm. B remains bound to the membranes that form vesicles during mitosis b) Condensation of chromatin: what are the SMC protein (condensins)? * SMC proteins in yeast Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) * Large proteins that form coiled-coils * ATPase activity in their C-terminus * Function in the normal segregation of chromatids * SMC proteins in frogs * Part of a complex called condensin that becomes phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis * Condensins bind DNA and wind it into â€Å"supercoils† with ATP hydrolysis * Several condensins bind along the lenth of the chromosomes to form coiled-coils to compact the DNA c) Spindle assembly due to MPF phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins d) ER and Golgi vesiculation – due to direct MPF phosphorylation What are the cohesins – what do they do and what regulates their activity? How does APC play a role in this regulation? (Fig. 20-21, 20-22) * Cohesins hold sister chromatids together * Separation of chromatids is not dependent on MPF destruction * Cohesin function is regulated by an anaphase inhibitor called securing. This inhibitor is a target for APC ubiquitination 12) Yeast cell cycle (Figs. 20-29 and 20-28) * Sic1 is the S-phase inhibitor destroyed by ubiquitination * E3 for the ubiquitination is cdc34 * The ubiquitination complex is called SCF Once Sic1 is destroyed, Cdc28/Clb5 + 6 phosphorylate substrates to initiate DNA replication * G1 cyclin-Cdc28 phosphorylated Sic1, enabling its recognition and ubiquitination by Cdc34 and SCF * Cln1 and Cln2 arise early on in the cell * Cdc28 is only in yeast * Clb5 and Clb6 arise late in G1. They are called S-phae cyclins. They are rapidly turned on by the destruction of Sic1 13) Why chromosomes replicate only once per cell cycle ( Fig. 20-30) * Protein degradation makes cell cycle progression move forward, not reverse * Sic1 is destroyed at G1 to S-phase transition Anaphase inhibitory (securing) is destroyed at the metaphase to anaphase transition * Cyclin B is destroyed at the mitosis to G1 transition 14) Early and late mammalian response genes. 15) Mammalian cell cycle (Fig. 20-32) * Growth factor hormones are called mitogens * The absence of mitogens cases cells to arrest in G1 or G0 * If mitogens are added, cells advance past the restriction point and are committed to S-phase and mitosis * Mammalian cells have several Cdks * Cdk 1, 2, 4, and 6 are used for the cell cycle * Cdk 1 complements Cdc2 * Mammalian cells also have multiple cyclins: D, E, A and B 6) D and E cyclins and their function, the Rb and E2F proteins (Figs. 20-33) * D type cyclins come from proto-oncogenes * Cyclin E is the principle player getting the cell past the restriction point * Cyclin D-Cdk4 or 6 is activated first and then Cyclin E-Cdk2 * Once CyclinD-Cdk4/6 is activated in phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein (Rb) which releases E2F * E2F now acts as a transcription activator. Cyclin E-Cdk2 then phosphorylated even more Rb/E2F via positive feedback loop 17) Overview of mammalian check points, p53 (Figs. 20-34 and 20-35) How to cite Cell Biology Final Review, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Individual and Group Differences in Behavior

Question: Describe about the Individual and Group Differences in Behavior? Answer: Introduction Recent research on the Big Five traits has led to a renaissance of attention in the influence of personality and behaviour. The study of the whole assignment will go through the various sections of the big five personality factors, which will enable the learner to understand the basic concept of the factor. The study will briefly look at what traits are, how these was these personality factors determined, what is the meaning of the traits and how these big five approach predict about our behaviour (Anastasi, 2009). The history of the study of Big Five traits highlights that the trait theory is also known as dispositional theory. Gordon Allport, an early pioneer in the study of traits, also referred these elements as dispositions. Moreover, as per his approach cardinal traits shape and dominate the behaviour of individuals (Solso, 2009). The big five traits includes Openness which elaborates the depth, originality, breadth, and complexity of the experimental and mental life of an individual. Then is Conscientiousness that socially prescribed impulse control that facilities goal and task directed behaviour, such as delaying gratification, thinking about the outcome before acting. Extraversion is the traits such as activity, sociability, assertiveness, and positive emotionality is included within extraversion. Agreeableness is the division contrasts a communal orientation towards other individuals and includes various traits like trust, tender mindedness, altruism etc. Neuroticism highlights the emotional stability within the individuals, and includes the even temperedness with various negative emotions. Moreover, the study will also elaborate the description of the big five approach, which will clear up all further doubts of the study. Moreover, the main emphasis of the study will highlight the strength and limitations of the big five approach, which will cover a major part of the assignment. Moreover, various practical applications has been included within the study which has major link with the big five approach. The appropriate level to measure personality has been a point of contention in the psychological literature. While some argue for parsimony, which, is a line of research, has shown that increasing the number of factors in models of personality significantly improves predictions of behaviour. Other refinements, of the Five-Factor convention have compared the efficacy of Big Five traits with the facets that comprise those traits. While both measures are highly effective in predicting general behaviour, the facets demonstrate substantial improvement in prediction as well as specific beliefs, such as levels of prejudice (Birch Hayward, 2009). These applications are the relevant research journals that have been extracted after thorough investigation. Furthermore, the assignment will also help the learner to understand the amount of help that this approach provides along with the exact role of the approach in human life. Body of assignment The consistent patterns of feelings, actions or thoughts, which differentiate people from one another, are known as the traits. These various basic tendencies remain within an individual for a lifetime. The individual at times thinks of changing these traits due to various external pressures. The change in the traits is not an easy task and hence, is not completed by most of the individuals (Anastasi, 2011). The study of various journals concludes that almost 91 % of the individual fails to change their traits in a permanent manner. The reason for the need of the change in traits by various individuals arises due to the various demands of the person. However, various studies have also stated that changing traits of an individual is not an easy task to perform. However, various a massive percentages of individuals have changed their traits within a limited span of time, but the problem arises, as these changes are not permanent. The change in the trait happens due to the change in the demand and attitude towards life. This happens as the life style of the individual changes with time and so does their demand automatically. Therefore, it can be argued that the change in the habits and demand of the persons affects their lifestyle and their traits. There have been various academic perspectives in the section of behaviour psychology over the decades together with individual motivation, the entire person, and human being differences. The Big Five falls under the perception of individual differences (Corr, 2014). These present taxonomy of traits that several individuality psychologists propose the detaining of the essence of individual differences in character. The trait was evaluated through the factor analysis studies, which helped to understand the exact need and concept of the approach. Many researches in the recent time have tested the several other factors than the Big 5 theory. These researchers have found the other theories unreliable, which state the fact th at Big 5 theory is the only consistently reliable factor. The recent resurgence of personality in individual research rests on the shoulders of the Big Five framework. In this setting, personality can be conceived as a multi-faceted and enduring internal, or psychological, structure that influences behaviour, and personality traits can be used as the basic units of personality (De Raad, 2011). The approach which looks not only at the larger Big Five characteristics, but also lower-level characteristics which together comprise the Big Five dimensions has been stated within the study. Moreover, this can also be stated that this theory can be applied in various practical divisions, which will definitely provide a positive outcome. Research on the Big Five can be divided into four basic assumptions: that traits exist and are measureable, vary across individuals, shape behaviour, and people describing themselves or others can express traits. This approach has been replicated across a var iety of languages and sub - populations, as well as being stable through the life cycle, with potential biological and genetic determinants. Moreover, a practical consideration is whether the Big Five is being measured appropriately, given the limited findings for some of the Big Five characteristics (Hong, Paunonen Slade, 2012). The growth of Big Five studies has been bolstered by the ability of researchers to ostensibly capture the characteristics in a parsimonious way with each being measured by a few items. This can be argued that this approach improves upon the constraints of the simplified measures employed by various researchers. The traits of the Big Five can be captured better by utilizing the facet measures, resulting in improved trait scales. Further, given that variation should exist within each trait, incorporating facets provides an opportunity to capture the sub-components of the Big Five traits. Not all extraverts are the same, nor is everyone extraverted in every situation. In order to understand why and the implications for political behaviour necessitates digging deeper than simply looking at the Big Five (Lounsbury, 2012). Brief description of the big five approach The big five factors are used by various researchers to describe the personality of the human beings in the field of psychology. The factors are stated below: Openness This section elaborates the depth, originality, breadth, and complexity of the experimental and mental life of an individual. This characteristic relates to ones open-mindedness to the world around them; how open they are to learning, as well as their general cognitive orientations. Those higher in Openness are predisposed to creative, curiosity, and imagination valuing experiences and exploration of the unfamiliar. Politically, lower levels of this characteristic have been connected to conservatism while higher levels predict a tendency toward liberalism (Khorramdel von Davier, 2014). Subsequently, we expect that higher levels of openness should increase the likelihood of one identifying as a Democrat, having liberal ideology, and supporting liberal Democratic candidates. Conscientiousness The socially prescribed impulse control that facilities goal and task directed behaviour, such as delaying gratification, thinking about the outcome before acting, rules, prioritizing tasks etc. comes under the section of Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness is socially prescribed impulse control that facilitates task- and goal-directed behaviour. Conscientious individuals are said to be efficient, rational, and well-organized, with higher levels of performance in school and jobs. Those higher in Conscientiousness also tend to be risk averse. Politically, Conscientiousness is thought to act in the inverse manner as openness to experience: higher levels lead to beliefs in personal responsibility, tradition, virtue, and thus conservatism (Margolis, 2013). Individuals higher in Conscientiousness provide support for this view. Subsequently, we would expect Conscientiousness to predict an increased likelihood of identifying as a Republican, or conservative, and as well as increased support for Republican candidates. Extraversion The traits such as activity, sociability, assertiveness, and positive emotionality is included within extraversion. This division also implies an energetic approach to the material and social world. As with the models considering the relationship between personality and political affect, Extraversion appears to matter only for views toward the individuals (Mica, Amiga Caselles, 2014). More specifically, under the broader umbrella of Extraversion, we see that individuals who are predisposed toward excitement (those who like being part of large, boisterous crowds) are more likely to be supported. Agreeableness This division contrasts a communal orientation towards other individuals and includes various traits like trust, tender mindedness, altruism etc. However, agreeableness is seen as one of the least understood traits. Broadly, it is thought to cover how one manages interpersonal relationships, particularly the degree of trust placed in others and conflict avoidance, as well as pro-social orientations generally (Cooper, 2012). Politically, it is thought to be relevant for evaluations of candidates, particularly those who emphasize social welfare policies given its emphasis on thoughts of others and was shown to increase preferences. Neuroticism This highlights the emotional stability within the individuals, and includes the even temperedness with various negative emotions. This also includes various feelings such as being nervous, getting tense, feeling sad etc (Gulfbend.org, 2015). The Emotional Stability is also referred to as Neuroticism. This trait contrasts the even-temperedness with negative emotionality. Those lower in this trait are thought to be anxious, disposed to feeling sad, and have poor coping mechanisms in times of stress. While these characteristics affect levels of impulsive behaviour, and can affect social status in groups. However, politically, Emotional Stability is an inconsistent predictor. Contrasting with Emotional Stability, Extraversion is an energetic approach toward the social and material world. Extraverted individuals, unsurprisingly, are described as outgoing, energetic, and sociable. Moreover, they enjoy the company of others, crave stimulation, and prefer leadership role (Solso, 2009). While Extraversion has been related to particular social behaviours, including risk-taking and higher levels of membership in groups. While some of the Big Five traits, particularly Extraversion and Openness to Experience have been shown to consistently predict political behaviour; other components (Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability) appear far less influential. Analyzing facets may lend insight into how other parts of personality influence behaviour. Figure 1: Big five factors (Source: Eysenck, 2013) Strength and limitations of the approach These approach has proved itself to be one of the most logical and positive element among all other various approaches. However, these approaches consist of various limitations and strength, which has been detailed below: Strength The major strength of the approach is the certain constructive order it brings to the measurement of a human being. The approach has the ability to determine various traits of human and this was examined by various researches over the time, which came out with a positive result. Personality is a complex element that requires detail to fully capture the underlying variation in characteristics (Robinson, 2012). Within each of the Big Five domains are sub-dimensions, which may reflect interpersonal or temperamental dispositions. Thus, measuring personality - using facets will improve our ability to attribute political behaviour to personality characteristics. Incorporating facets into measurement may also shed light on an empirical puzzle of personality (Hutton, 2012). Furthermore, the other strength of the approach is that it has the ability to judge almost all the traits of the individuals, which highlights its capabilities to even more in the near future. The model not only has the ability to judge the various traits of human beings but at the same time also is capable of monitoring the change in these traits of an individual. Limitations This is one of the topic upon which various researches have been conducted in order to find out the loophole of the approach. However, some of the research has come up with the limitation of the approach but most of the research has not been able to find any sort of new limitation of the approach. This certainly means that the approach does not have any major limitation. The major limitation of the approach is that it does not have the capability to evaluate one of the traits of human being, which is the sense of humour. Moreover, it has been also seen that negative correlations often appear within Extroversion and Neuroticism. This indicates that the individuals who are less talkative and outgoing have major chance to experience negative emotions (Teovanovic, 2014). This has proved to be one of the major limitations of the approach, as this does not get applicable in the practical life. Another major drawback of the approach is that the Big Five do not have the capability to explain all the human personality and hence, do not get applicable at all point of time. The model has also been dissented by some psychologists. The reason behind this is that the model neglects various personal traits like Honesty, Sense of humour, Conservativeness, Religiosity etc. Practical applications of the theory The researchers have worked upon this approach for quiet a time and have succeeded in finding the various loopholes and drawbacks of the model. On the other hand, the findings are minor and have not exceeded in the future researches. Despite a more recent focus on the behavioural implications of personality, research on the influence of personality traits has not ignored how these characteristics link to more foundational components (Eysenck, 2013). While connections between personality and ideological identification have not appeared to cut across all traits, there has been sufficient evidence of connections for us to derive the expectations for each of the Big Five elements. One of the most practical applications of the theory can be judged when the Agreeableness and the Neuroticism of the study is judged. The Neuroticism states that individuals are exposed to the various affections such as trust, being nervous, getting tense, and feeling sad. This certainly shows that the model has the ability to judge human beings to a massive extent (Kunzendorf Wallace, 2010). The practical implication of the theory gets even more intense as the study further stated that these affections within an human being is subject to changes and do not stay in a stable manner for a long span of time. The section of Agreeableness lists various traits such as trust, tender mindedness, altruism within it. This section also states that these traits within an individual is not permanent and is does change massively with time. Therefore, it can be said that the theory has a huge ability to list the various practical nature of the individuals. The statement can also be evaluated with the daily life of the individuals, which will prove the fact that persons do use these traits for a minimum span of time (Skehan, 2009). However, some extra ordinary case arises where various individuals have found to have these traits within them in a fixed manner. lusion The expanded instrument compares to recent measurement of the Big Five in replicated analysis. The strategy, we asserted, has shed light on the underlying characteristics driving the previously observed relationships between various personalities. Moreover, the study also has potentially uncovered various relationships that have gone unobserved previously due to the simplified measurement of personality. The study also concludes that the big five concept is applicable to a major percentage in practical life. On the other hand, the approach also has some loopholes and drawbacks as it do not have the capability to indulge the traits such as honesty, sense of humour etc. The study also concluded that the strength of the approach has the ability to determine various traits of human and this was examined by various researches over the time, which came out with a positive result. Reference List Books Anastasi, A. (2009). Differential psychology; individual and group differences in behavior. New York: Macmillan. Anastasi, A. (2011). Individual differences. New York: Wiley. Birch, A., Hayward, S. (2009). Individual differences. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Cooper, C. (2012). Individual differences. London: Arnold. Eysenck, M. (2013). Individual differences. Hove, UK: L. Erlbaum Associates. Kunzendorf, R., Wallace, B. (2010). Individual differences in conscious experience. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Robinson, P. (2012). Individual differences and instructed language learning. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Skehan, P. (2009). Individual differences in second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold. Journals Corr, P. (2014). Individual differences: normal and abnormal. Personality And Individual Differences, 17(4), 585. De Raad, B. (2011). Big Five approaches . European Psychologist, 3(2), 113-124. Hong, R., Paunonen, S., Slade, H. (2012). Big Five personality factors and the prediction of behavior: A multitraitmultimethod approach. Personality And Individual Differences, 45(2), 160-166. Khorramdel, L., von Davier, M. (2014). Measuring Response Styles Across the Big Five Multivariate Behavioral Research, 49(2), 161-177. doi:10.1080/00273171.2013.866536 Lounsbury, J. (2012). Book Review: The Big Five personality factors (The psycholexical approach to personality). Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment, 20(3), 309-311. Margolis, A. (2013). Five misconceptions about big five concept: Why we need a people-centred approach to Big  Data. Ethnographic Praxis In Industry Conference Proceedings, 2013(1), 32-43. Mic, J., Amig, S., Caselles, A. (2014). From the Big Five to the General Factor of Personality: a Dynamic Approach. The Spanish Journal Of Psychology, 17. Solso, R. (2009). Individual differences in cognition. Personality And Individual Differences, 9(2), 446. Hutton, R. (2012). Supplemental Material for Separating Method Factors and Higher Order Traits of the Big Five: A Meta-Analytic MultitraitMultimethod Approach. (2011). Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology. Teovanovic, P. (2014). Anchoring effect: Individual differences approach. Personality And Individual Differences, 60, S77. Website Gulfbend.org,. (2015). Big Five Personality Traits - Psychological Testing. Retrieved 28 June 2015, from https://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=docid=8948cn=18

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Foucault Darkness is meant to conceal, light is me Essays

Foucault Darkness is meant to conceal, light is meant to expose, and there is power intrinsically imbued in both of these. Murderers hide in the dark, waiting for their victims, and the atrocities of different countries are hidden in history and official memos and propaganda. At the same time, light exerts power because it illuminates, it discovers, it creates vulnerability on all it touches. These powers, however, do not simply exist; they are forged within every aspect of life, even the very structures that people live in. Low-income tenement apartments are built so that they are not seen, colored in a drab shade of gray or brick, build alongside one another so that they blend into the background. They have small lawns and even smaller windows so that people walking by cannot get a glimpse of the life inside; darkness is used to hide their sad reality. Victorian mansions, however, do not need to shroud themselves in darkness. Their almost treeless lawns, small front gardens, an d large picture windows are meant to illuminate their wealth, showing it off for the entire world to see. Beginning in the eighteenth or nineteenth century, the nature of punishment began to change. Slowly, the spectacle of justice which accompanied the public executions and torture of the Middle Ages began to recede farther and farther away from the public into the fringes of society as the institution of the prison began to take shape. Hidden by both distance and structure, the large stone/concrete walls and small windows kept the reality of the prison well hidden from the general public. The prisons succeeded in separating the normal from the abnormal, the law-abiding from the delinquent without bringing any great attention to it. Although the outside of the prison was meant to conceal, the inside was meant to illuminate; the prison was not meant merely to confine convicts, but also to keep a watchful eye on them, to keep them separate from one another and to keep them consta ntly under surveillance. Rather than the massive, binary division between one set of people and another, it called for multiple separations, individualizing distributions, an organization in depth of surveillance and control, an intensification and a ramification of power (Foucault). Instead of merely a holding cell, the prison became an instrument of subjugation, distinguished by the control it exerted over the inmates ' corporeal being. Visibility was exercised on the prisoners themselves, ensuring that even if their mind resisted, their bodies would be forced to obey. The separation, subjugation and surveillance of prisoners became the device through which order was maintained; prisoners were separated so they did not conspire, watched in case they needed medical attention, and monitored to make sure that they were not hiding contraband or trying to escape. The transition from spectacle to prison can be traced to a much larger trend throughout history. With the outbreak of the plague in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century, the need for separation and observation became more important than ever. In response, a system of individualization and observation was created to monitor and account for people in an attempt to establish and maintain control. In response to the dwindling power of the monarch and the further distribution of power throughout society, the Panopticon became a way to transfers the corporeal power exerted by the king himself to the ever watchful eye of those who supported him (police, guards, royal court, etc) and maintained his power. Designed to allow for these anonymous and numerous individuals to maintain power through their constant observation, the Panopticon was conceived of as a circular building with bands of equally sized and spaced windows running along both the inside and outside walls. These windows allowed light to enter the rooms, revealing the silhouette of the person confined within. In the center of this str ucture, a guard tower was placed from which any number of supervisors at any time could observe each individual confined within their cell. Taking an indefinite number of people, the Panopticon separates them from each other so that they may be observed, individualized, watched and therefore controlled. The crowd, a compact mass, a locus of multiple exchanges, individualities merging together, a